1 I use the words psyche and psychic to denote the human personality taken as a whole. It should not be taken in the popular sense as implying something communicated to human minds from an external source, tho the term would include extra-sensory faculties as subjectively experienced, since those are aspects of a fully-developed consciousness.
2 We might also see this projectible or extravertory quality as psychic energy, an unseen force-field around the personality defining ‘personal space’. The Chinese have long recognised this quality of psychic integrity as Chi or Qi, a word embedded in the country’s name, and the 600 year tradition of martial arts is based on the idea of developing a psychic shield by the projection of one’s energy.
3 Voices is a shorthand term. While many experience them verbally, other people will experience them simply as impulses to action arising from the subconscious. Manifestly, visual artists will tend to associate creative impulses less with a voice than those who art-form is based on the ear. Ancient cultures recognised this much more clearly. To the Greeks everyone contained a daimon or spirit which inspired them to good or evil actions. In Latin the word genius actually means a resident spirit or guardian angel. The Romans believed that everyone had some unique form of genius, ‘that of God’ within each one, defining their quintessential character.
4 John Fordham, The Guardian 3/1/97
5 rubato literally means [time-]robbery
I found it significant when I taught at the Royal College of Music Junior Department that boys with high academic achievements tended to have a much feebler body-sense of rhythm than the lesser educated. The observation applied less markedly to girls. This idea of rhythmic sureness being linked to a certain kind of self-knowledge recurs in the ideas surrounding the word dharma mentioned later in the article
6 ed Dinesh Bhugra, Psychiatry & Religion, Routledge 1996. Quote from a review by Julian Candy in Network #61, 1996.
7 Obversely, those not at one within themselves characteristically experience external reality as boring and predictable and seek to enliven it by addictive physical or cultural stimuli.
8 Maxwell Steer, See Through Music, Contemporary Music Review Vol14.1 (Harwood Academic Press, Int 1996)
Anyone interested in this argument would find the second section of the article, Knowledge & Individuation, of particular relevance.
9 One aspect of this idea of dharma is expressed in remarks by the retiring broadcasting executive Sam Chisholm about his success at BSkyB [Guardian 23/6/97] "It does require sacrifice, because you have a sense of duty. You’ve got to learn to put everything ahead of yourself." Plainly this ‘sacrifice’ was before the altar of a Golden Calf rather than the pursuit of anything profound, and the i/v reveals that one of the things Chisholm sacrificed was his own family, yet it shows what can be achieved by single-minded application towards, here, a simple-minded goal.
10 I don’t want to get side-tracked on this fascinating extension of the ‘voice hearing’ phenomenon, which ‘cries out’ for deeper consideration. Jung of course looked at the broader question of the psychology of religious awareness, most pertinently in Answer to Job and Psychology & Religion, but didn’t cover this specific topic in detail. However many of Marie-Louise von Franz’s writings do consider some of these issues: Shadow & Evil in Fairy Tales (Shambhala US) especially contains some marvellous insights.
11 Jeremiah 20:9 (Jerusalem Bible).
12 See How Great Thou Art. - a study of the loss of the second person singular in popular vocabulary.
There is an aspect in the growth of elective drug-taking since WW2 which undoubtedly reflects a pharmacological search for psycho-physiological ecstasy as a short-cut to phenomena previously only accessible through religious tradition. There is much about Rave culture which unquestionably follows patterns the hallucinogenic cults which have at times existed in various parts of the world.
13 The Philosophical Tree, CG Jung, Collected Works vol 13.
I explored these issues in my play The Watcher In The Rain (1990) whose plot revolved around the treatment of James Joyce’s schizophrenic daughter by Jung.
14 W Mellers Present & Past: Intermediaries & Interpreters in Companion to Contemporary Musical Thought (Routledge 1994) Vol 2. James Joyce said very similar things.
15 Marius Romme & Sandra Escher, Accepting Voices (MIND UK 1993)
16 Wilson Van Dusen The Natural Depth in Man (Swedenborg Foundation US 1973)
17 A remarkable exception to this phenomenon was the case of Prof Helen Shucman, a lecturer in Medical Psychology at Columbia U's College of Physicians & Surgeons in NYC, who from 1965-72 received 'emanations' which -after consultation with her senior professor, William Thetford- she began to write down, despite having no previous interest in spirituality. These writings were eventually edited by Thetford into the enormously influential Course in Miracles. The experiences never altered Dr Shucman's life, nor did she consent to their publication by Thetford until after her retirement in 1977. She died in 1981 before the book achieved its current celebrity. Website www.acim.org/home/fip
18 Comment on a tape I produced for Salisbury Voice Hearing Group, 1996, which started my interest in these phenomena. Available from Salisbury Council for Voluntary Service UK+1722 421746.
19 Mundaka Upanishad (translator unknown).
Self is here to be taken as 'your true nature', ie the goodness at the core of your being or soul.
20 From a poem by Kabir, Indian !6thC mystic.
21 Lecture at Harvard, delivered in French, quoted in translation by Michael Ignatieff in The Illuminati BBCr3 3/7/97
22 Marie-Louise Von Franz, The Religious or Magical Attitude in Psychotherapy, Shambhala 1993
23 Osho [Bhagwan Rajneesh] Finger Pointing to the Moon - Discources onthe Adhyatma Upanishad, Element 1994 - freely adapted from pp106-109. My italics & adaptation to unisexual language.